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Operating System Tutorial

Last Updated : 12 Jun, 2024
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An Operating System(OS) is software that manages and handles the hardware and software resources of a computer system. It provides interaction between users of computers and computer hardware. An operating system is responsible for managing and controlling all the activities and sharing of computer resources. An operating system is a low-level Software that includes all the basic functions like processor management, memory management, Error detection, etc.

This Operating System tutorial will cover all the basic to advance operating system concepts like System Structure, CPU Scheduling, Deadlock, file and disk management, and many more.

Basics :

  1. Introduction of Operating System
  2. Types of Operating Systems
  3. Functions of Operating System
  4. Real time systems
  5. Tasks in Real Time systems
  6. Difference between multitasking, multithreading and multiprocessing
  7. Types of computer memory (RAM and ROM)
  8. Difference between 32-bit and 64-bit operating systems
  9. What happens when we turn on computer?
  10. Boot Block
  11. UEFI(Unified Extensible Firmware Interface) and how is it different from BIOS

System Structure :

  1. Microkernel
  2. Kernel I/O Subsystem (I/O System)
  3. Monolithic Kernel and key differences from Microkernel
  4. Introduction of System Call
  5. Get/Set process resource limits in C
  6. Dual Mode operations in OS
  7. Privileged and Non-Privileged Instructions

CPU Scheduling :

  1. Process | (Introduction and different states)
  2. States of a process
  3. Process Table and Process Control Block (PCB)
  4. Process Scheduler
  5. CPU Scheduling
  6. Preemptive and Non-Preemptive Scheduling
  7. Measure the time spent in context switch?
  8. Difference between dispatcher and scheduler
  9. FCFS Scheduling | Set 1
  10. FCFS Scheduling | Set 2
  11. Convoy Effect in Operating Systems
  12. Belady’s Anomaly
  13. Shortest Job First (or SJF) scheduling | Set 1 (Non- preemptive)
  14. Program for Shortest Job First (SJF) scheduling | Set 2 (Preemptive)
  15. Shortest Job First scheduling with predicted burst time
  16. Longest Remaining Time First (LRTF) Program
  17. Longest Remaining Time First (LRTF) algorithm
  18. Round Robin scheduling
  19. Selfish Round Robin Scheduling
  20. Round Robin Scheduling with different arrival times
  21. Priority Scheduling
  22. Program for Preemptive Priority CPU Scheduling
  23. Priority Scheduling with different arrival time – Set 2
  24. Starvation and Aging in Operating Systems</a
  25. Highest Response Ratio Next (HRRN) Scheduling
  26. Multilevel Queue Scheduling
  27. Multilevel Feedback Queue Scheduling
  28. Lottery Process Scheduling
  29. Multiple-Processor Scheduling

>> Quiz on CPU Scheduling

Process Synchronization :

  1. Process Synchronization | Introduction
  2. Process Synchronization | Set 2
  3. Critical Section
  4. Inter Process Communication
  5. Interprocess Communication: Methods
  6. IPC through shared memory
  7. IPC using Message Queues
  8. Message based Communication in IPC (inter process communication)
  9. Communication between two process using signals in C
  10. Semaphores in operating system
  11. Mutex vs. Semaphore
  12. Process Synchronization | Monitors
  13. Peterson’s Algorithm for Mutual Exclusion | Set 1 (Basic C implementation)
  14. Peterson’s Algorithm for Mutual Exclusion | Set 2 (CPU Cycles and Memory Fence)
  15. Peterson’s Algorithm (Using processes and shared memory)
  16. Dekker’s algorithm
  17. Bakery Algorithm
  18. Producer Consumer Problem using Semaphores | Set 1
  19. Dining Philosopher Problem Using Semaphores
  20. Dining-Philosophers Solution Using Monitors
  21. Readers-Writers Problem | Set 1 (Introduction and Readers Preference Solution)
  22. Reader-Writers solution using Monitors
  23. Sleeping Barber problem
  24. Lock variable synchronization mechanism
  25. Mutex lock for Linux Thread Synchronization
  26. Priority Inversion : What the heck !
  27. What’s difference between Priority Inversion and Priority Inheritance ?
  28. Process Synchronization
  29. Interprocess Communication: Methods

>> Quiz on Process Management in OS

Deadlock :

  1. Deadlock Introduction
  2. Deadlock Detection And Recovery
  3. Deadlock, Starvation, and Livelock
  4. Deadlock Prevention And Avoidance
  5. Banker’s Algorithm
  6. Resource Allocation Graph (RAG)
  7. Methods of resource allocation to processes by operating system
  8. Program for Banker’s Algorithm
  9. Banker’s Algorithm : Print all the safe state (or safe sequences)
  10. Deadlock detection algorithm
  11. Program for Deadlock free condition in Operating System
  12. Deadlock detection in Distributed systems
  13. Techniques used in centralized approach of deadlock detection in distributed systems

>> Quiz on Deadlock

Processes & Threads :

  1. Operating System | Thread
  2. Threads and its types
  3. Operating System | User Level thread Vs Kernel Level thread
  4. Process-based and Thread-based Multitasking
  5. Multi threading models
  6. Benefits of Multithreading
  7. Zombie Processes and their Prevention
  8. Maximum number of Zombie process a system can handle
  9. Operating System | Remote Procedure call (RPC)

Memory Management :

  1. Memory Hierarchy Design and its Characteristics
  2. Introduction to memory and memory units
  3. Different Types of RAM (Random Access Memory)
  4. Buddy System: Memory allocation technique
  5. Memory Management | Partition Allocation Method
  6. Fixed (or static) Partitioning in Operating System
  7. Variable (or dynamic) Partitioning in Operating System
  8. Non-Contiguous Allocation in Operating System
  9. Logical vs Physical Address in Operating System
  10. Paging
  11. Requirements of memory management system
  12. Memory management – mapping virtual address to physical addresses
  13. Page Table Entries
  14. Virtual Memory
  15. Memory Interleaving
  16. Virtual Memory Questions
  17. Operating system based Virtualization
  18. Inverted Page Table
  19. Swap Space
  20. Page Fault Handling
  21. Fixed (or static) Partitioning in Operating System
  22. Segmentation
  23. Memory Segmentation in 8086 Microprocessor
  24. Program for Next Fit algorithm in Memory Management
  25. Overlays in Memory Management
  26. Page Replacement Algorithms
  27. Program for Page Replacement Algorithms | Set 1 ( LRU)
  28. Program for Optimal Page Replacement Algorithm
  29. LFU (Least Frequently Used) Cache Implementation
  30. Second Chance (or Clock) Page Replacement Policy
  31. Techniques to handle Thrashing
  32. Allocating kernel memory (buddy system and slab system)
  33. Program for buddy memory allocation scheme in Operating Systems | Set 1 (Allocation)
  34. Program for buddy memory allocation scheme in Operating Systems | Set 2 (Deallocation)
  35. Static and Dynamic Libraries | Set 1
  36. Working with Shared Libraries | Set 1
  37. Working with Shared Libraries | Set 2
  38. Named Pipe or FIFO with example C program
  39. Tracing memory usage in Linux

>> Quiz on Memory Management

Disk Management:

  1. File Systems
  2. Unix File System
  3. Implementing Directory Management using Shell Script
  4. File Directory | Path Name
  5. Structures of Directory
  6. File Allocation Methods
  7. File Access Methods
  8. Secondary memory
  9. Secondary memory – Hard disk drive
  10. Disk Scheduling Algorithms
  11. Program for SSTF disk scheduling algorithm
  12. What exactly Spooling is all about?
  13. Difference between Spooling and Buffering
  14. Free space management

>> Quiz on Input Output Systems


  1. Introduction to UNIX System
  2. Important Linux Commands (leave, diff, cal, ncal, locate and ln)
  3. Process states and Transitions in a UNIX Process
  4. Introduction to Linux Shell and Shell Scripting
  5. ‘crontab’ in Linux with Examples
  6. indepth and maxdepth in Linux find() command for limiting search to a specific directory.

Types of Operating System

  • Batch OS (e.g. Transactions Process, Payroll System, etc.)
  • Multi-programmed OS(e.g. Windows, UNIX, macOS, etc.)
  • Timesharing OS(e.g. Multics, Linux, etc.)
  • Real-Time OS(e.g. PSOS, VRTX, etc.)
  • Distributed OS(e.g. LOCUS, Solaris, etc.)

Operating System Functions

  • Memory and processor Management
  • Network Management
  • Security Management
  • File Management
  • Error Detection
  • Job Accounting

FAQs on Operating System

Q.1 Why learn Operating Systems?


OS is the most important part of a computer. Through OS users can interact with computer software. It provides an interface between Hardware and CPU. It also provides a platform for the program to run on it and services to users. It performs all the basic tasks required in an application.

Q.2 Write the top 10 Operating System Examples?


Some most popular OS examples are given below:

  • Windows
  • Linux
  • MacOS
  • Ios
  • Android
  • Ubuntu
  • CentOS
  • Solaris
  • Chrome OS
  • Fedora

Q.3 What are the Advantages of a multiprocessor system?


A multiprocessor system involves the processing of two or more computer programs simultaneously that share the same memory area. It increases reliability.

Q.4 What is a thread in OS?


A thread is a lightweight process or subprogram which is part of the process or a program. A thread has its own Registers, Stack, State, and Program counter.

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