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Last Updated : 09 May, 2024
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Biology: Biology is the scientific study of life. It is a natural science with a broad scope but has several unifying themes that tie it together as a single, coherent field. Biology encompasses the study of all living organisms, from the smallest bacteria to the largest whales, and the interactions between these organisms and their environment.


This field includes the Anatomy, Physiology, Ecology, and Morphology of living organisms. The definition of biology includes the relationship between plants, animals, microorganisms, and their relation to the environment.

What is Biology?

“The more I learn about biology, the more I realize how incredibly beautiful life is.” – E.O. Wilson

Biology is the story of how life unfurled on the Earth. It is the branch of science that deals with life forms and life processes. In earlier times, Biology was only limited to the knowledge of the human body and its function as it formed the basis for medical practice. Fundamental issues regarding how life originated, growth of the biodiversity, and the evolution of living creatures according to different habitats intrigued the biologists.

The term “Biology” in Greek is divided into two parts – bios = life; logos = study, which translates into study of life. Biology is a part of Science, along with Physics and Chemistry. These days Biology is commonly referred to as “Life Sciences”.

Major Branches of Biology

Biology is a vast field, and many different branches of biology focus on specific aspects of life. Some of the major branches of biology include:

  • Biochemistry: The study of the chemical processes that occur in living organisms.
  • Molecular biology: The study of the molecules that make up living organisms, such as DNA, RNA, and proteins.
  • Cell biology: The study of the structure and function of cells.
  • Genetics: The study of heredity and how traits are passed down from parents to offspring.
  • Microbiology: The study of microorganisms, such as bacteria and viruses.
  • Botany: The study of plants.
  • Zoology: The study of animals.
  • Physiology: The study of the functions of living organisms.
  • Ecology: The study of interactions between organisms and their environment.
  • Evolutionary biology: The study of how species change over time.

The Science of Life

The study of biology is essential to understanding the natural world around us. Biology helps to understand the diversity of life, the processes by which living organisms function, and the relationships between different organisms. This knowledge is essential for solving many of the world’s most pressing problems, such as climate change, disease, and food security.

Divisions of Biology

The subject of biology has many divisions which are discussed below:

Topic Link Short Statement
Anatomy Visit Site Anatomy is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organisms and their parts.
Biotechnology Visit Site Biotechnology involves the manipulation of living organisms or their systems to develop or make products, enhancing human life and health.
Botany Visit Site Botany is the scientific study of plants, including their physiology, structure, genetics, ecology, distribution, and classification.
Ecology Visit Site Ecology examines the interactions among organisms and their biophysical environment, which can be natural or built, and how these interactions affect the distribution and abundance of organisms.
Genetics Visit Site Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms, explaining how traits are passed from parents to offspring.
Immunology Visit Site Immunology is the study of the immune system, the body’s defense against infectious organisms and other invaders.
Microbiology Visit Site Microbiology is the study of microscopic organisms, such as bacteria, viruses, archaea, fungi, and protozoa, focusing on their interactions with humans and other organisms.
Physiology Visit Site Physiology explores how organisms, organ systems, organs, cells, and biomolecules carry out the chemical and physical functions in a living system.
Zoology Visit Site Zoology is the scientific study of the behavior, structure, physiology, classification, and distribution of animals.

History of Biology

In earlier times, man used to live in caves and jungles. He ate fruits and vegetables from the forest and hunted animals. This allowed him to learn about the life and habitats of different plants and animals. This was the beginning of ‘Biology’. Various drawings and paintings during prehistoric times highlight the fact that early man was interested in plants and animals around him. As man evolved socially, he began domesticating animals like cows, sheep, horses, and dogs, which allowed him to learn more about the ways and lives of these animals. Greeks were the first people who organized the study of Biology. A few of the scientists who were involved with the early study are given below:

  • Aristotle was the first peson to study animals in detail and is also known as the Father of Biology/Zoology.
  • Theophratus studied plants and is known as the ‘Father of Botany“.
  • Hippocrates is known as the “Father of Medicine“.

In India, around 2500 B.C to 650 B.C biology flourished. Animals were being classified as Oviparous and Viviparous. The cultivation of rice began, with over 1000 varieties being the current count. During the 16th century, the invention of Microscope opened a new world of minute animals and plants came to human knowledge. The term ‘Cell‘ was coined which further amplified the study of Biology. Currently, biology has made a great progress in the field of Genetics, Genetic engineering, Antibiotics, Cancer research, cloning, Stem cell research.

NCERT Biology Class-wise Revision Notes

Quick notes help students to revise the whole syllabus in minutes. CBSE Revision Notes clearly give you a short overview of the complete chapter as these CBSE chapter-wise key points are prepared in such a manner that each and every concept from the NCERT syllabus is covered in form of CBSE Revision Notes. Following are the links to the revision notes from Grade 8 to Grade 12:

NCERT Biology Chapter-wise Solutions

Important biology questions for CBSE classes 6–12 are available here. Our subject matter experts and educators have created the questions with consideration for the NCERT curriculum and syllabus. Students can easily do well on their board exams by figuring out the answers to these questions. Following are the links to the chapterwise solutions from Grade 8 to Grade 12:

Important Class 12 Biology Chapters with Class 12 Biology Notes

The list of important class 12 biology chapters are:

Important Class 11 Biology Chapters with Class 11 Biology Notes

The list of important class 11 biology chapters are:

Important Class 10 Biology Chapters with Class 10 Biology Notes

The list of important class 10 biology chapters are:

Important Class 9 Biology Chapters with Class 9 Biology Notes

The list of important class 9 biology chapters are:

Important Class 8 Biology Chapters with Class 8 Biology Notes

The list of important class 8 biology chapters are:

School Biology

Check Here for More Topics: School Biology Archives

Biology MAQs

Check Here for More Topics: Biology MAQ

Biology Diagram’s

Check Here for More Topics: Important Biology Diagrams for Class 8 to Class 12 and NEET Exam

Difference Between Series of Biology

The list of articles on difference between are given below:

Biology Articles on Facts

Some of the important articles on facts are:

Themes of Biology

Despite the diversity of life, there are several unifying themes that tie biology together as a single field. These themes include:

  • Hierarchy of organization: Living organisms are organized into a hierarchy, from the smallest molecules to the largest ecosystems.
  • Unity and diversity of life: All living organisms share certain characteristics, such as cells, metabolism, homeostasis, growth, reproduction, and adaptation. However, there is also a great deal of diversity among living organisms.
  • Energy and matter flow: Energy and matter flow through living organisms and ecosystems.
  • Change over time: Living organisms and ecosystems change over time.

Importance of Biology

The study of biology has helped humans advance very far in their field. Few of the examples are given below:

  • Medicine: The basis of contemporary medicine is biology. Scientists have been able to enhance surgical techniques, produce  new vaccinations to prevent diseases, and find novel treatments for diseases by knowing how the human body functions.
  • Agriculture: Developing innovative agricultural technology to increase food production and enhance the quality of our food  supply requires a strong understanding of biology.
  • Protection of the environment: Understanding and safeguarding the environment depend on biology.Biologists research how  organisms interact with their surroundings and create plans to save threatened species and ecosystems.

How biology is used in the real world?

  • Medicine: Biologists develop new drugs and vaccines to treat diseases, and they develop new surgical techniques and medical devices.
  • Agriculture: Biologists develop new crop varieties that are resistant to pests and diseases, and they develop new agricultural practices that are more sustainable.
  • Environmental protection: Biologists study the interactions between organisms and their environment, and they develop strategies to protect endangered species and conserve biodiversity.
  • Biotechnology: Biologists use living organisms to produce products, such as food, medicine, and biofuels.
  • Forensic science: Biologists use DNA and other biological evidence to solve crimes.

Future of Biology

Biology is a rapidly evolving field. New discoveries are being made all the time, and new technologies are being developed that allow us to study biology in new ways. For example, the development of gene editing technologies has revolutionized the field of biology and has led to new insights into the causes and treatments of diseases.

The future of biology is bright. Biologists are working on solving some of the world’s most pressing problems, such as climate change, disease, and food security. Biology is a fascinating and important science that has a profound impact on our lives.

Further Reading:

Topic Link Short Statement
Plant Tissues Visit Site Plant tissues are groups of cells that function together for a specific task, essential for growth and survival in plants.
Heredity and Evolution Visit Site Heredity and Evolution explore the genetic principles of inheritance and the process of biological evolution, explaining the diversity of life on Earth.

Biology – FAQs

What is Biology?

Biology is the scientific study of living organisms and their interactions with each other and their environments. It encompasses everything from the smallest cells to complex ecosystems.

Who is the father of biology?

Aristotle is recognized as the father of biology for his pioneering contributions to the study of living organisms.

What are the Main Branches of Biology?

Biology has several branches, including botany (the study of plants), zoology (the study of animals), microbiology (the study of microorganisms), genetics (the study of heredity), and ecology (the study of ecosystems).

Who is the Mother of biology?

Maria Sibylla Merian is celebrated as the mother of biology, known for her detailed observations and illustrations of insects and plants.

Who First Discovered Biology?

The discovery of biology as a science is attributed to Thomas Beddoes, who made significant early contributions to the field.

What are Some Important Topics in Biology?

Key topics in biology include evolution (the process of how species change over time), genetics (the study of inheritance), photosynthesis (how plants convert sunlight into energy), and cell biology (the study of the basic units of life).

Who is the Father of Zoology?

Aristotle is also known as the Father of Zoology due to his extensive studies and classifications of various animals.

How Does Biology Relate to Medicine?

Biology plays a crucial role in medicine by providing the foundation for understanding diseases, the human body, and the development of medical treatments and advancements in healthcare.

Who is the Father of Virology?

Martinus Beijerinck is honored as the Father of Virology for his discovery of viruses as a new form of infectious agent.

Why is Biodiversity Important in Biology?

Biodiversity, or the variety of life on Earth, is essential for ecosystem stability and the well-being of all living organisms. It contributes to ecosystem services and supports various human needs.

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