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Computer Organization and Architecture Tutorial

Last Updated : 12 Jun, 2024
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Computer Organization and Architecture is used to design computer systems. Computer Architecture is considered to be those attributes of a system that are visible to the user like addressing techniques, instruction sets, and bits used for data, and have a direct impact on the logic execution of a program, It defines the system in an abstract manner, It deals with What does the system do.

Whereas, Computer Organization is the way in which a system has to structure and It is operational units and the interconnections between them that achieve the architectural specifications, It is the realization of the abstract model, and It deals with How to implement the system.

In this Computer Organization and Architecture Tutorial, you’ll learn all the basic to advanced concepts like pipelining, microprogrammed control, computer architecture, instruction design, and format.

Basic Computer Instructions :

  1. A simple understanding of Computer
  2. Issues in Computer Design
  3. Computer System Level Hierarchy
  4. Computer Architecture and Computer Organization
  5. Basic Computer Instructions
  6. Timing diagram of MOV Instruction in Microprocessor
  7. Assembly language and High level language
  8. Addressing Modes
  9. Memory based Vs Register based addressing modes
  10. Von Neumann architecture
  11. Harvard Architecture
  12. Interaction of a Program with Hardware
  13. Simplified Instructional Computer (SIC)
  14. Instruction Set used in simplified instructional Computer (SIC)
  15. Instruction Set used in SIC/XE
  16. RISC and CISC
  17. RISC and CISC | Set 2
  18. Vector processor classification
  19. Essential Registers for Instruction Execution
  20. Single Accumulator based CPU organization
  21. Stack based CPU Organization
  22. General Register based CPU Organization
  23. Data Transfer instructions in AVR microcontroller
  24. Arithmetic instructions in AVR microcontroller
  25. Conditional Branch Instructions in AVR Microcontroller
  26. CALL Instructions and Stack in AVR Microcontroller
  27. Branch Instructions in AVR Microcontroller
  28. Logical Instructions in AVR Microcontroller
  29. Data Manipulation Instructions
  30. Machine Control Instruction
  31. Very Long Instruction Word (VLIW) Architecture

Instruction Design and Format :

  1. Different Instruction Cycles
  2. Essential Registers for Instruction Execution
  3. Machine Instructions
  4. Instruction Formats (Zero, One, Two and Three Address Instruction)
  5. 2-address instruction and 1-address instructions
  6. 3-address instruction and 0-address instruction
  7. 3-address instruction and 2-address instructions
  8. Register content and Flag status after Instructions
  9. Debugging a machine level program
  10. Vector Instruction Format
  11. Vector instruction types
  12. Branch Prediction in Pentium
  13. Instruction Word Size
  14. >> Problem Solving on Instruction Format

Computer Arithmetic :

  1. Computer Arithmetic | ALU and Data Path
  2. Computer Arithmetic | Set 1
  3. Computer Arithmetic | Set 2
  4. Difference between 1’s complement and 2’s complement
  5. Restoring Division Algorithm For Unsigned Integer
  6. Non-Restoring Division For Unsigned Integer
  7. Booth’s Algorithm
  8. Overflow in Arithmetic Addition
  9. How the negative numbers are stored in memory?
  10. Conventional Computing vs Quantum Computing

>> Quiz on Number Representation

Microprogrammed Control :

  1. Micro-Operation
  2. Microarchitecture and Instruction Set Architecture
  3. Types of Program Control Instructions
  4. Difference between CALL and JUMP instructions
  5. Hardwired v/s Micro-programmed Control Unit
  6. Implementation of Micro Instructions Sequencer
  7. Performance of Computer
  8. Control Unit and design
  9. Horizontal micro-programmed Vs Vertical micro-programmed control unit
  10. Camparisons between Hardwired Vs Micro-programmed Control unit
  11. Computer Organization | Subprogram and its characteristics

Memory Organization :

  1. Introduction to memory and memory units
  2. Memory Hierarchy Design and its Characteristics
  3. Difference between Byte Addressable Memory and Word Addressable Memory
  4. Difference between Simultaneous and Hierarchical Access Memory Organisations
  5. Register Allocation
  6. Cache Memory
  7. Cache Organization | Set 1 (Introduction)
  8. Multilevel Cache Organisation
  9. Locality and Cache friendly code
  10. Locality of Reference and Cache Operation
  11. Amdahl’s law and its proof
  12. Subroutine, Subroutine nesting and Stack memory
  13. RAM vs ROM
  14. What’s difference between CPU Cache and TLB?
  15. Different Types of RAM
  16. Types of computer memory (RAM and ROM)
  17. Secondary memory – Hard disk drive
  18. Introduction to solid-state drive (SSD)
  19. Read and Write operations in memory
  20. 2D and 2.5D Memory organization

Input and Output Systems :

  1. Priority Interrupts | (S/W Polling and Daisy Chaining)
  2. I/O Interface (Interrupt and DMA Mode)
  3. Direct memory access with DMA controller 8257/8237
  4. Asynchronous input output synchronization
  5. Programmable peripheral interface 8255
  6. Interface 8255 with 8085 microprocessor for 1’s and 2’s complement of a number
  7. 8255 (programmable peripheral interface)
  8. Microcomputer system
  9. Working of 8085-based Single board microcomputer
  10. Interface 8254 PIT with 8085 microprocessor
  11. Synchronous Data Transfer
  12. Input-Output Processor
  13. MPU Communication
  14. Memory mapped I/O and Isolated I/O
  15. BUS Arbitration

Pipelining :

  1. Instruction Level Parallelism
  2. Execution, Stages and Throughput
  3. Types and Stalling
  4. Dependencies and Data Hazard

IEEE Number Statndards

  1. IEEE Standard 754 Floating Point Numbers

Miscellaneous :

  1. Microprocessor
  2. Microprocessor | Externally Initiated Operations
  3. Bus organization of 8085 microprocessor
  4. Generations of computer
  5. Intel x86 evolution and main features
  6. Memory Banking
  7. Introduction to quantum computing
  8. Conventional Computing vs Quantum Computing
  9. Rethinking binary with Quantum computers
  10. Flynn’s taxonomy
  11. Clusters In Computer Organisation
  12. Parallel processing – systolic arrays
  13. 8259 PIC Microprocessor
  14. Block Diagram of 8259 Microprocessor
  15. Microprocessor | 8251 USART
  16. Evolution of Microprocessors
  17. Human – Computer interaction through the ages
  18. Computer Ports
  19. Introduction to Parallel Computing
  20. Hardware architecture (parallel computing)
  21. Computer Architecture | Multiprocessor and Multicomputer
  22. Timing diagram of INR M

Programs :

  1. Program for Binary To Decimal Conversion
  2. Program for Decimal to Binary Conversion
  3. Program for decimal to octal conversion
  4. Program for octal to decimal conversion
  5. Program for hexadecimal to decimal

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