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Programming Tutorial | Introduction, Basic Concepts, Getting started, Problems

Last Updated : 12 Dec, 2023
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This comprehensive guide of Programming Tutorialor Coding Tutorial provides an introduction to programming, covering basic concepts, setting up your development environment, and common beginner problems. Learn about variables, data types, control flow statements, functions, and how to write your first code in various languages. Explore resources and tips to help you to begin your programming journey. We designed this Programming Tutorial
or Coding Tutorial to empower beginners and equip them with the knowledge and resources they will need to get started with programming.

Programming Tutorial

Programming Tutorial

1. What is Programming?

Programming, also known as coding, is the process of creating a set of instructions that tell a computer how to perform a specific task. These instructions, called programs, are written in a language that the computer can understand and execute.

Think of programming as giving commands to a robot. You tell the robot what to do, step-by-step, and it follows your instructions precisely. Similarly, you tell the computer what to do through code, and it performs those tasks as instructed.

The purpose of programming is to solve problems and automate tasks. By creating programs, we can instruct computers to perform a wide range of activities, from simple calculations to complex tasks like managing databases and designing video games.

A. How Programming Works:

Programming involves several key steps:

  • Problem definition: Clearly define the problem you want to solve and what you want the program to achieve.
  • Algorithm design: Develop a step-by-step procedure for solving the problem.
  • Coding: Translate the algorithm into a programming language using a text editor or integrated development environment (IDE).
  • Testing and debugging: Run the program and identify and fix any errors.
  • Deployment: Share the program with others or use it for your own purposes.

B. Benefits of Learning to Code:

Learning to code offers numerous benefits, both personal and professional:

  • Develop critical thinking and problem-solving skills: Programming encourages logical thinking, problem decomposition, and finding creative solutions.
  • Boost your creativity and innovation: Coding empowers you to build your own tools and applications, turning ideas into reality.
  • Increase your employability: The demand for skilled programmers is high and growing across various industries.
  • Improve your communication and collaboration skills: Working with code often requires collaboration and clear communication.
  • Gain a deeper understanding of technology: Learning to code gives you a better understanding of how computers work and how they are used in the world around you.
  • Build self-confidence and motivation: Successfully completing programming projects can boost your confidence and motivate you to learn new things.

Whether you’re interested in pursuing a career in technology or simply want to expand your knowledge and skills, learning to code is a valuable investment in your future.

2. Getting Started with Programming Tutorial

A. Choosing Your First Language

Goals Front-end Back-end Cross-platform Game Development Data Science General-Purpose
Web Development HTML, CSS, JavaScript Python (Django), Ruby (Rails) Python, Java, C++, JavaScript, Ruby, C#
Mobile App Development Java (Android), Kotlin (Android/iOS), Swift (iOS) Java, Kotlin, Swift React Native Java, Kotlin, Swift, JavaScript
Game Development C++, Unity, Unreal Engine (C++), JavaScript (Phaser) C++, Unity, Unreal Engine (C++) JavaScript (Phaser), C++, Unity, Unreal Engine
Data Science Python Python (NumPy, pandas, scikit-learn), R Python, R
General-Purpose Python, Java, C++, JavaScript, Ruby, C#

Assess Resource Availability:

  • Free Online Resources: Platforms like Geeksforgeeks, Coursera, edX, and Udemy offer structured learning paths for various languages.
  • Paid Online Courses: Platforms like Geeksforgeeks, Coursera, edX, and Udemy offer structured learning paths for various languages.
  • Books and eBooks: Numerous beginner-friendly books and ebooks are available for most popular languages.
  • Community Support: Look for active online forums, communities, and Stack Overflow for troubleshooting and questions.

B. Which Programming Language should you choose as your First Language?

Here’s a breakdown of popular beginner-friendly languages with their Strengths and Weaknesses:

Language Strengths Weaknesses


Well known for high performance and efficiency, system programming, game development, embedded systems

Steeper learning curve, potential for complex syntax

Java Widely used for enterprise apps, Android dev, big data Object-oriented concepts can be complex for beginners
Python Easy to learn, versatile, widely used for web dev, data sci, AI Can be slower than compiled languages
JavaScript Essential for web dev, interactive elements, front-end apps Challenging to debug complex code
C# Great for game dev, desktop apps, web services Requires more upfront learning compared to others
Ruby Object-oriented, popular for web dev with frameworks like Rails Rails framework can be overwhelming for beginners

C. Setting Up Your Development Environment

Choose a Text Editor or IDE:

  • Text Editors: Sublime Text, Atom, Notepad++ (lightweight, good for beginners)
  • IDEs:
    • Offline IDEs: Visual Studio Code, PyCharm, IntelliJ IDEA (feature-rich, recommended for larger projects)
    • Online IDEs: GeeksforGeeks IDE

Install a Compiler or Interpreter:

  • Compilers: Convert code to machine language (C++, Java)
  • Interpreters: Execute code line by line (Python, JavaScript)

Download Additional Software (if needed):

  • Web browsers (Chromium, Firefox) for web development
  • Android Studio or Xcode for mobile app development
  • Game engines (Unity, Unreal Engine) for game development

Test Your Environment:

  • Write a simple program (e.g., print “Hello, world!”)
  • Run the program and verify the output
  • Ensure everything is set up correctly


  • Start with a simple editor like Sublime Text for code basics.
  • Use an IDE like Visual Studio Code for larger projects with advanced features.
  • Join online communities or forums for help with setup issues.

3. Common Programming Mistakes and How to Avoid Them

  • Syntax errors: Typographical errors or incorrect grammar in your code.
  • Use syntax highlighting in your editor or IDE.
  • Logical errors: Errors in the logic of your program, causing it to produce the wrong results.
  • Carefully review your code and logic.
  • Test your program thoroughly with different inputs.
  • Use debugging tools to identify and fix issues.
  • Runtime errors: Errors that occur during program execution due to unforeseen circumstances.
  • Seek help from online communities or forums for specific errors.


  • Start with simple programs and gradually increase complexity.
  • Write clean and well-formatted code for better readability.
  • Use comments to explain your code and logic.
  • Practice regularly and don’t be afraid to experiment.
  • Seek help from online communities or mentors when stuck.

4. Basic Programming Essentials – A Beginner’s Guide to Programming Fundamentals:

This section delves deeper into fundamental programming concepts that form the building blocks of any program.

A. Variables and Data Types:

Understanding Variable Declaration and Usage:

  • Variables are containers that hold data and can be assigned different values during program execution.
  • To declare a variable, you specify its name and data type, followed by an optional assignment statement.
  • Example: age = 25 (declares a variable named age of type integer and assigns it the value 25).
  • Variables can be reassigned new values throughout the program.

Exploring Different Data Types:

  • Integers: Whole numbers without decimal points (e.g., 1, 2, -3).
  • Floats: Decimal numbers with a fractional part (e.g., 3.14, 10.5).
  • Booleans: True or False values used for conditions.
  • Characters: Single letters or symbols (‘a’, ‘$’, ‘#’).
  • Strings: Sequences of characters (“Hello, world!”).
  • Other data types: Arrays, lists, dictionaries, etc. (depending on the language).

Operations with Different Data Types:

Each data type has supported operations.

  • Arithmetic operators (+, -, *, /) work with integers and floats.
  • Comparison operators (==, !=, >, <, >=, <=) compare values.
  • Logical operators (&&, ||, !) combine conditions.
  • Concatenation (+) joins strings.
  • Operations with incompatible data types may lead to errors.

B. Operators and Expressions:

Arithmetic Operators:

  • Perform basic mathematical calculations (+, -, *, /, %, **, //).
  • % (modulo) returns the remainder after division.
  • ** (power) raises a number to a certain power.
  • // (floor division) discards the fractional part of the result.

Comparison Operators:

  • Evaluate conditions and return True or False.
  • == (equal), != (not equal), > (greater than), < (less than), >= (greater than or equal), <= (less than or equal).

Logical Operators: Combine conditions and produce True or False.

  • && (and): both conditions must be True.
  • || (or): at least one condition must be True.
  • ! (not): reverses the truth value of a condition.

Building Expressions:

  • Combine variables, operators, and constants to form expressions.
  • Expressions evaluate to a single value.
    Example: result = age + 10 * 2 (calculates the sum of age and 20).

C. Control Flow Statements:

Conditional Statements: Control the flow of execution based on conditions.

  • if-else: Executes one block of code if the condition is True and another if it’s False.
  • switch-case: Executes different code blocks depending on the value of a variable.

Looping Statements: Repeat a block of code multiple times.

  • for: Executes a block a specific number of times.
  • while: Executes a block while a condition is True.
  • do-while: Executes a block at least once and then repeats while a condition is True.

Nested Loops and Conditional Statements:

  • Can be combined to create complex control flow structures.
  • Inner loops run inside outer loops, allowing for nested logic.

D. Functions:

Defining and Calling Functions:

  • Blocks of code that perform a specific task.
  • Defined with a function name, parameters (optional), and a code block.
  • Called throughout the program to execute the defined functionality.

Passing Arguments to Functions:

  • Values passed to functions for processing.

Returning Values from Functions:

  • Functions can return a value after execution.
  • Useful for collecting results.


  • A function calling itself with a modified input.
  • Useful for solving problems that involve repetitive tasks with smaller inputs.

These topics provide a solid foundation for understanding programming fundamentals. Remember to practice writing code and experiment with different concepts to solidify your learning.

5. Advanced Programming Concepts

This section explores more advanced programming concepts that build upon the foundational knowledge covered earlier.

A. Object-Oriented Programming (OOP)

OOP is a programming paradigm that emphasizes the use of objects to represent real-world entities and their relationships.

1. Classes and Objects:

  • Classes: Define the blueprint for objects, specifying their properties (attributes) and behaviors (methods).
  • Objects: Instances of a class, with their own set of properties and methods.

2. Inheritance and Polymorphism:

  • Inheritance: Allows creating new classes that inherit properties and methods from existing classes (superclasses).
  • Polymorphism: Enables objects to respond differently to the same message depending on their type.

3. Encapsulation and Abstraction:

  • Encapsulation: Encloses an object’s internal state and methods, hiding implementation details and exposing only a public interface.
  • Abstraction: Focuses on the essential features and functionalities of an object, ignoring unnecessary details.

B. Concurrency and Parallelism

Concurrency and parallelism are crucial for improving program efficiency and responsiveness.

1. Multithreading and Multiprocessing:

  • Multithreading: Allows multiple threads of execution within a single process, enabling concurrent tasks.
  • Multiprocessing: Utilizes multiple processors to run different processes simultaneously, achieving true parallelism.

2. Synchronization and Concurrency Control:

Mechanisms to ensure data consistency and prevent conflicts when multiple threads or processes access shared resources.

6. Writing Your First Code

Here is your first code in different languages. These programs all achieve the same goal: printing “Hello, world!” to the console. However, they use different syntax and conventions specific to each language.

Printing “Hello world” in C++:


// Includes the iostream library for input and output.
#include <iostream>
 // Defines the main function, where the program execution starts.
int main()
    // Prints the string "Hello, world!" to the console.
    std::cout << "Hello, world!" << std::endl;
    // Exits the program and returns an exit code of 0, indicating success.
    return 0;


Hello, world!

Explanation of above C++ code:

  • #include: This keyword includes the <iostream> library, which provides functions for input and output.
  • int main(): This defines the main function, which is the entry point of the program.
  • std::cout <<: This keyword prints the following expression to the console.
  • “Hello, world!” This is the string that is printed to the console.
  • std::endl: This keyword inserts a newline character after the printed string.
  • return 0; This statement exits the program and returns a success code (0).

Printing “Hello world” in Java:


// Defines a public class named HelloWorld.
public class HelloWorld {
    // Declares the main function.
    public static void main(String[] args)
        //  Prints the string "Hello, world!" to the
        //  console.
        System.out.println("Hello, world!");


Hello, world!

Explanation of above Java code:

  • public class HelloWorld: This keyword defines a public class named HelloWorld.
  • public static void main(String[] args): This declares the main function, which is the entry point of the program.
  • System.out.println(“Hello, world!”); This statement prints the string “Hello, world!” to the console.

Printing “Hello world” in Python:


# Simply prints the string "Hello, world!" to the console.
print("Hello, world!")


Hello, world!

Explanation of above Python code:

  • print: This keyword prints the following argument to the console.
  • “Hello, world!” This is the string that is printed to the console.

Printing “Hello world” in Javascript:


// Prints the string "Hello, world!" to the console using the console object's log method.
console.log("Hello, world!");


Hello, world!

Explanation of above Javascript code:

  • console.log: This object’s method prints the following argument to the console.
  • “Hello, world!” This is the string that is printed to the console.

Printing “Hello world” in PHP:


<?php // Starts the PHP code block.
  // Prints the string "Hello, world!" to the console using the echo function.
  echo "Hello, world!";
// Ends the PHP code block.


Hello, world!

Explanation of above PHP code:

  • <?php: This tag initiates a PHP code block.
  • echo: This keyword prints the following expression to the console.
  • “Hello, world!” This is the string that is printed to the console.
  • ?>: This tag ends the PHP code block.

7. Top 20 Programs to get started with Coding/Programming Tutorial:

Here are the list of some basic problem, these problems cover various fundamental programming concepts. Solving them will help you improve your coding skills and understanding of programming fundamentals.


Check if a Number is Even or Odd

Find the Sum of First N Natural Numbers

Find the Largest of Two Numbers

Program to print prime numbers from 1 to N

Generate a Fibonacci Sequence

Reverse a String

Convert a String to Uppercase/Lowercase

Count the Number of Vowels in a String

Find the First Non-Repeating Character in a String

Print Multiplication Table of a Number

Calculate the Factorial of a Number

Generate Prime Numbers within a Range

Find the GCD (Greatest Common Divisor) of Two Numbers

Check if a Number is a Power of 2

Swap Two Numbers without using a Temporary Variable

Convert a Decimal Number to Binary

Program to print hollow rectangle or square star patterns

Check if a Number is Divisible by 3 and 5

Calculate the Area of a Triangle

Program for Area And Perimeter Of Rectangle

8. Next Steps after learning basic Coding/Programming Tutorial:

Congratulations on taking the first step into the exciting world of programming! You’ve learned the foundational concepts and are ready to explore more. Here’s a comprehensive guide to help you navigate your next steps:

A. Deepen your understanding of Basic Programming Concepts:

  • Practice regularly: Implement what you learn through practice problems and coding exercises.
  • Solve code challenges: Platforms like GeeksforGeeks, HackerRank, LeetCode, and Codewars offer challenges to improve your problem-solving skills and coding speed.

B. Learn advanced concepts:

  • Data structures: Learn about arrays, linked lists, stacks, queues, trees, and graphs for efficient data organization.
  • Algorithms: Explore algorithms for searching, sorting, dynamic programming, and graph traversal.
  • Databases: Learn SQL and NoSQL databases for data storage and retrieval.
  • Version control: Use Git and GitHub for code versioning and collaboration.

C. Choose a focus area:

  • Web development: Learn HTML, CSS, and JavaScript to build interactive web pages and applications.
  • Mobile app development: Choose frameworks like Flutter (Dart) or React Native (JavaScript) to build cross-platform apps.
  • Data science and machine learning: Explore Python libraries like NumPy, pandas, and scikit-learn to analyze data and build machine learning models.
  • Game development: Learn game engines like Unity (C#) or Unreal Engine (C++) to create engaging games.
  • Desktop app development: Explore frameworks like PyQt (Python) or C# to build desktop applications.
  • Other areas: Explore other areas like robotics, embedded systems, cybersecurity, or blockchain development based on your interests.

D. Build projects:

  • Start with small projects: Begin with simple projects to apply your knowledge and gain confidence.
  • Gradually increase complexity: As you progress, tackle more challenging projects that push your boundaries.
  • Contribute to open-source projects: Contributing to open-source projects is a great way to learn from experienced developers and gain valuable experience.
  • Showcase your work: Create a portfolio website or blog to showcase your skills and projects to potential employers or clients.

9. Resources and Further Learning

A. Online Courses and Tutorials:

  • Interactive platforms: GeeksforGeeks, Codecademy, Coursera, edX, Khan Academy
  • Video tutorials: GeeksforGeeks, YouTube channels like FreeCodeCamp, The Coding Train, CS50’s Introduction to Computer Science
  • Language-specific tutorials: GeeksforGeeks, Official documentation websites, blogs, and community-driven resources

B. Books and eBooks:

  • Beginner-friendly books: “Python Crash Course” by Eric Matthes, “Head First Programming” by David Griffiths
  • Advanced topics: “Clean Code” by Robert C. Martin, “The Pragmatic Programmer” by Andrew Hunt and David Thomas
  • Free ebooks: Many free programming ebooks are available online, such as those on Project Gutenberg

C. Programming Communities and Forums:

  • Stack Overflow: Q&A forum for programming questions
  • GitHub: Open-source platform for hosting and collaborating on code projects
  • Reddit communities: r/learnprogramming, r/python, r/webdev
  • Discord servers: Many languages have dedicated Discord servers for discussions and support

D. Tips for Staying Motivated and Learning Effectively:

  • Set realistic goals and deadlines.
  • Start small and gradually increase complexity.
  • Practice regularly and code consistently.
  • Find a learning buddy or group for accountability.
  • Participate in online communities and forums.
  • Take breaks and avoid burnout.
  • Most importantly, have fun and enjoy the process

10. Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) on Programming Tutorial:

Question 1: How to learn programming without tutorial?

Answer: Learning programming without tutorials involves a self-directed approach. Start by understanding fundamental concepts, practicing regularly, and working on small projects. Utilize books, documentation, and online resources for reference.

Question 2: How to learn coding tutorial?

Answer: Learning coding through tutorials involves choosing a programming language, finding online tutorials or courses, and following them step by step. Practice coding alongside the tutorial examples and apply the concepts to real-world projects for a hands-on learning experience.

Question 3: What are 3 important things to know about programming?

Answer: Problem Solving: Programming is fundamentally about solving problems.

Logic and Algorithms: Understanding logical thinking and creating efficient algorithms is crucial.

Practice: Regular practice and hands-on coding improve skills and understanding.

Question 4: How many days do I need to learn programming?

Answer: The time to learn programming varies based on factors like prior experience, the complexity of the language, and the depth of knowledge desired. Learning the basics can take weeks, but mastery requires continuous practice over months.

Question 5: Can tutorials help coding?

Answer: Yes, tutorials are valuable resources for learning coding. They provide structured guidance, examples, and explanations, making it easier to understand and apply Programming Tutorial concepts.

Question 6: How do you use tutorials effectively?

Answer: Use tutorials effectively by following these steps:

  • Set clear learning goals.
  • Work on hands-on exercises and projects.
  • Seek additional resources for deeper understanding.
  • Regularly review and practice concepts learned.

Question 7: Can coding be done on a phone?

Answer: Yes, coding can be done on a phone using coding apps or online platforms that provide mobile-friendly coding environments. However, a computer is generally more practical for extensive coding tasks.

Question 8: Can I learn coding on GeeksforGeeks?

Answer: Yes, GeeksforGeeks is a popular platform for learning coding. Many Tutorials, Courses are provided you to learn various programming languages and concepts.

Question 9: Can we do coding on a laptop?

Answer: Yes, coding can be done on a laptop. Laptops are common tools for coding as they provide a portable and versatile environment for writing, testing, and running code.

Question 10: What is the difference between coding and programming?

Answer: The terms are often used interchangeably, but coding is typically seen as the act of writing code, while programming involves a broader process that includes problem-solving, designing algorithms, and implementing solutions. Programming encompasses coding as one of its stages.


This comprehensive programming tutorial has covered the fundamentals you need to start coding. Stay updated with emerging technologies and keep practicing to achieve your goals. Remember, everyone starts as a beginner. With dedication, you can unlock the world of programming!

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